In the 20th century, philosophical treatments of dialogue emerged from thinkers including Mikhail Bakhtin, Paulo Freire, Martin Buber, and David Bohm. Although diverging in many details, these thinkers have articulated a holistic concept of dialogue as a multi-dimensional, dynamic and context-dependent process of creating meaning. Educators such as Freire and Ramón Flecha have also developed a body of theory and technique for using egalitarian dialogue as a pedagogical tool.
The term dialogue stems from the Greek διάλογος (dialogos, conversation); its roots are διά (dia: through) and λόγος (logos: speech, reason). The first extant author who uses the term is Plato, in whose works it is closely associated with the art of dialectic. Latin took over the word as dialogus.
Dialog (Bulgarian:Диалог), is the free weekly newspaper with only positive information and news from Varna city, Bulgaria, Europe. The newspaper's first issue came out on 30 March 2007 with the biggest circulation in Varna region. The main idea of Dialog newspaper is to bring warmth and optimism, a sense for an orientation and direction in the world, to prove that life is a challenge and that it has to be lived in the best way. Its editor-in-chief is Svetlozar Nikolov.
Dialogue in fiction, is a verbal exchange between two or more characters. If there is only one character talking aloud, it is a monologue.
"This breakfast is making me sick," George said.
The George said is the identifier. Said is the verb most writers use because reader familiarity with said prevents it from drawing attention to itself. Although other verbs such as ask, shout, or reply are acceptable, some identifiers get in the reader's way. For example:
"Hello," he croaked nervously, "my name's Horace." "What's yours?" he asked with as much aplomb as he could muster.
another example is:
"My name is Peg, what's yours?" I asked.
"My name is William, but my friends call me Will," said Will.
Stephen King, in his book On Writing, expresses his belief that said is the best identifier to use. King recommends reading a novel by Larry McMurtry, whom he claims has mastered the art of well-written dialogue.
Substitutes are known as said-bookisms. For example, in the sentence "What do you mean?" he smiled., the word smiled is a said-bookism.
According to the Bologna statistics of the European Union, Italian is spoken as a native language by 65 million people in the EU (13% of the EU population), mainly in Italy, and as a second language by 14 million (3%). Including the Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland and Albania) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is around 85 million. Italian has been reported as the fourth or fifth most frequently taught foreign language in the world.